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Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 168-189 (2010)

“Long-term Agricultural Growth in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh”
Takashi Kurosaki (Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University)

This paper investigates the growth performance of agriculture in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh in the twentieth century. The use of unusually long-term data that correspond to the current borders for the period 1901-2002 distinguishes this study from the existing ones. The empirical results show a sharp discontinuity between the pre- and the post- independence periods in all three countries: growth rates in total output, land productivity, and labor productivity rose from zero or very low figures to significantly positive levels, which were sustained throughout the post-independence period. The improvement in aggregate land productivity explained the most of this output growth, of which approximately one third was attributable to shifts to more lucrative crops.